Traditional rugs are always wholly made by hand, each knot tied by the weaver around the warp
threads on a vertical or horizontal loom. A handmade rug can have from thousands to millions of
knots and can take from 2 weeks to 2 years to make.
The materials are generally wool, silk or cotton, or a mixture. The backing- the longitudinal warp
threads and the latitudinal weft threads- of the rug is always either cotton, wool, silk or jute.
Kilims are flatweave rugs so have no pile. As a decoration they often have areas of wool pile as a decoration – this is a mixed technique kilim. Kilims were used to wrap the bales of rugs when being shipped to the west and, until about 1980, were not particualrly valued. The design is formed from the weft thread which runs across the rug and is woven in and out of the longitudinal warp threads.