Traditional rugs are always wholly made by hand, each knot tied by the weaver around the warp threads on a vertical or horizontal loom. A handmade rug can have from thousands to millions of knots and can take from 2 weeks to 2 years to make.
The materials are generally wool, silk or cotton, or a mixture. The backing- the longitudinal warp threads and the latitudinal weft threads- of the rug is always either cotton, wool, silk or jute.
The most usual and popular traditional rugs are made in Turkey, Iran (Persia), Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and China. Lesser available rugs are also made in Morocco, Egypt, Eastern Europe and Southern Russia and Turkmenistan.